Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning


  • Michelle Rudolph Independence University


multimedia learning, active processing, instructional multimedia, multimedia principles, cognitive learning


Instructional multimedia has rapidly advanced in the past decade. The area that has seen the most growth is video instruction.  In this literature review the Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning (CTML) is introduced and how it can be implemented to help learners effectively and efficiently learn through instructional multimedia. The theoretical framework of CTML is reviewed as well has how memory works in instructional multimedia. The framework for multimedia learning is rooted in three assumptions: dual channels, limited capacity, and active processing. To balance visual and verbal channels the twelve principles of multimedia design are used. Research and experiments have been conducted by Mayer as well as other researchers over the past three decades on how implementing different multimedia principles can have an effect on a learner's ability to develop meaningful learning and what principles are the most effective in designing instructional multimedia. The results found that learners perform better on problem solving transfer tests when watching a concise lesson compared to an extended lesson. Text should be close to images and given breathing room. Using symbols and highlights help call out key concepts to the learner. Results also showed extraneous details should not be added.





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